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新疆人:一个本土摄影师的视觉记忆 ----新浪《看见》

Xinjiang People: A Local Photographer’s Portfolio

我是个土生土长的新疆人。最近,常有朋友打电话劝我别去危险的地方拍照。实际上,这几年来,我收到过不少类似的信息。每次放下电话,我都会陷入沉思,过往几十年的生活经历和难以胜数的照片,总会一幕幕、一张张地浮现在眼前。不,我想,我要怀着最大的善意,用我的相机去拥抱这片我深爱着的土地和所有善良的人们。

I was born and brought up in Xinjiang, and my longtime friends often warn me, a photographer, not to take pictures in dangerous places. As a matter of fact I have received many such phone calls in recent years. Each time I finish the call, I become lost in thought. Scenes of experiences in past decades, together with those photos, materialize before my eyes. I decide I will, with my camera and my utmost good faith, continue to record the land and its people that I dearly love.

我父亲来新疆是1943年。他年轻时饲养军马,后来长期在山区和连队放牧,过着跟哈萨克族一样的生活。河对岸的哈萨克人经常会骑马来我们家做客,还曾送给父亲一根结实粗大的木棍用来顶门——门关严了冬天可以防风,也能阻止闯入的野生动物。六七十年代的新疆接纳了很多来新疆谋生的内地人,他们最终都变成了新疆人。新疆培育了新疆人性格里坚定倔强的一面,但同时也展示了她巨大的包容性。即使是“弱者”,也能在这里找到自己生存的地方,这点并不遵循所谓的自然法则。

My father came to Xinjiang in 1943. As a young man, he fed army horses for a time, and afterwards worked stock in the mountains, just as Kazakhs did. Kazakhs rode across the river to call at my house. Once they brought my father a stout club, which we used to prop the door to shut it tight—to keep out wind and wild beasts. In the 1960s and ‘70s many people moved from inland China to settle in Xinjiang and they eventually became “the locals.” To my mind, Xinjiang people are generally obstinate, but ironically also tolerant. It is not hard for new people to live here, even the “weak people,” simply because the so-called “natural” law of selection doesn’t apply in this part of the world.

上个世纪90年代初我在四川读石油财经专业,当时还包分配,大家都愿意到新疆去。很多同学会问我这个惟一的来自新疆的学生:新疆是什么样的?我只能一边恶补相关知识,一边搪塞。而同时,我自己也对内地一无所知。“口内”是什么样的,这个问题同样困扰着我。也是那时,我意识到,“新疆”和“口内”有比较大的信息不对等问题,相互之间的了解并不深入。

I majored in the finance and economics of petrol at a college in Sichuan, with the guarantee of a job and, back then, it was a good thing to be assigned to Xinjiang. People asked me, What is Xinjiang like?, since I was the only person they knew who’d ever been there. I either hedged to avoid the question or opened a book to crib relevant details to foist on them. I knew little about the inland and was bothered by imagining what east-central China might be like. One day I realized the yawning gap that exists in the understanding between Xinjiang and inland China.

自2000年起,我开始在父母长眠的这片土地上行走、摄影,逐渐接触到了新疆博大的自然和多元的社会万象。我时常感到这里处处都像我的家,碰到的不同民族就像自己的兄弟姐妹。有段时间我还特别爱去那些依然保存着未开发的原始面貌的森林、绿洲和其中的牧区、村庄。那片多样的充满差异的广阔地域,显得独特、丰富又纯粹。那些依然保存着古老生存方式的人们,他们之间的感情以及人们与自然之间的依存关系,让我感觉远古沿袭下来的传统依然固在。

Since 2000, I’ve been traveling and photographing on this land where my parents were buried, which gives me the opportunity to grip bits and pieces about the great nature and diversified social life of Xinjiang. I suspect that everywhere I go is like my home and individuals of different ethnicities are siblings. For a time, I was intense about the primeval forests, the oases, the pastures and villages. This vast and diversified land is matchless, profound and pure. When people keep the lifestyle of a place intact, are attached to each other, venerate nature, and regard several generations of tradition as not-so-old gives all of us a feeling of timelessness..

塔克拉玛干沙漠腹地的人们沿着克里雅河居住,河两岸生长有大面积的胡杨、红柳和芦苇等荒漠植被。世代居住在这里的人们恋土难移,成为沙漠里的“原始部落”;“冰川之父”慕士塔格峰(海拔7546米)下纯朴善良的塔吉克族人,见面互致问候是很重要的一项生活内容。虽然高原生活并非富足,但这里却极少有人愿意下到平原生活,很大的原因在于对圣山的崇拜:每天看到巍峨的冰峰,会让他们觉得生活充满希望。对他们来说,精神上的充实远比物质上的丰裕重要。

In the heartland of Taklimakan desert the inhabitants find it best to live along the KeriyaRiver, where on both sides grow wide swathes of desert vegetation, the Euphrates poplar, rose willows, and reeds. Generations have a deep link with the land, this particular spot on the globe. They are the “primitive tribe” of the desert. For the kind-hearted Tajiks living under Muztagh Ata (7,546 meters), the well-known “Glacier Father, “an integral part of routine is to greet each other if they meet. Things aren’t easy on the plateau, but the people are not move on, moving out, or seeking to emigrate to the plain. Why, they wonder, would anyone wish to move away from their holy mountain. Seeing the massive ice mountain daily lifts their spirits. Being spiritually well-off is more imperative than finding material abundance.

而与吉尔吉斯斯坦交界,地处高寒山区的柯尔克孜族人,仍以农牧业为主要生活手段,完整保留着原始的驯养猎鹰的方式。他们在放牧的同时,经常骑马到高高的山顶上,将自己驯养的猎鹰放飞。

Along the cold border China shares with Kyrgyzstan, the Kirghiz people live in the past, the human past that is–on agriculture and animal husbandry, like plenty of others for centuries have. Domesticating falcons, what a perfect idea saved from the past. Working stock in the pasture, they sometimes ride up high mountain to free their falcons.

距离布尔津县只有160多公里,但因山高林密、交通不便,禾木的原住民蒙古族图瓦人以往曾经长期过着与世隔绝的生活。他们崇拜树木、森林、泉水。对于他们来说,“Hom”才是真正的“家”。而随着旅游的开发,图瓦女孩嫁给汉族、回族的渐渐多了起来。

Though a mere 160 kilometers away from Burqin County, the aboriginal Tuwa people of Mongolian nationality in Hom Village used to live a secluded life, segregated from the rest of us by high mountains, dense forests and inconvenient transportation. They worship trees, forests and spring water. For them “Hom” is their real home. With the influence of local tourism, though, Tuwa girls fall in love and marry Han or Hui boys. Who can stop love?

人们总是可以感受到伊犁扑面而来的热烈而直白的热情。这里是代代过着游牧生活的各族牧民的家,也是屯垦戍边、开发新疆的军垦战士们的归宿。

The brimming-over, direct hospitality of people in Ili would overwhelm any visitor. Home to herdsmen of different ethnicities who’ve been nomads for generations, it has also become home to soldiers assigned to develop and safeguard the border area in Xinjiang.

吐鲁番特殊的气候和自然条件,激发起人们对自然馈赠的感激之情。葡萄架下人们甘于平淡充实的生活,心存对未来收获的满足与坚守家园的信心。

Turpan’s climate and natural conditions are a unique blessing. People under the ripening grape trellises seem genuinely willing to lead a bucolic life, content with their harvest and faithful to their homeland.

哈密。我分配到那里工作的四川同学,娶了当地的妻子。他们的孩子依稀还带着他年轻时候的样子,但说话、举止已经完全是新疆孩子的做派,他也由一介文弱书生变成了性情豪爽的新疆人。

Kumul. One of my college classmates was assigned to work in Kumul and married a local girl. Their child, who slightly resembles his father in his younger years, talks and acts like other Xinjiang children. My friend has been transformed from a frail-looking graduate student into a frank, straightforward Xinjiang man.

在迅速开发的新城和特区的变革进步中,传统有了新的内涵。在巨大的塔克拉玛干沙漠恶劣环境影响下的喀什,能够存活生物的地方都被开发和利用起来,中亚、印度、西方、中原各种源头的传统以及五花八门的求生方式,在潜移默化中产生着缓慢的推动力,就算最难消化的异地特色,在这里也因有足够的时间反刍和咀嚼,被强健的胃口吸收分解,最终出现在这个肥沃丰美的绿洲上。成为特区后的喀什,正在变为日新月异的建设工地。骆驼不会再急促地经过吐曼河畔,毛驴车只是出现在巴扎天城乡结合地带,125型摩托车早已销声匿迹,更多的是摩登女郎驾驶着电动摩托车摇摆而过。优雅与浮躁、宁静与喧嚣,混在一起弥漫在老城和新城的灰尘里。

Amid reform and development of a new town and special zone, tradition takes on a different connotations. Kashgar is deeply affected by the severity of the vast Taklimakan desert, yet every corner where life can exist has been utilized. Various ways of living wafted in from central Asia, India and western countries, bringing potential, development, and change. Exotic cultures, no matter how powerful, can be chewed up and at last digested by the strong stomach of this rugged place; over time they may be incorporated into the oasis. Designated a special zone, a new Kashgar, is under construction, its new look is taking hold. 骆驼不会再急促地经过吐曼河畔,毛驴车只是出现在巴扎天城乡结合地带,125型摩托车早已销声匿迹,更多的是摩登女郎驾驶着电动摩托车摇摆而过。优雅与浮躁、宁静与喧嚣,混在一起弥漫在老城和新城的灰尘里。Camels don’t cross the Tuman riverside anymore, and you can’t see donkey carts except in Bazhatian, the urban fringe. Type 125 motorbikes are replaced by electric motorcycles driven by pretty girls. Grace and fickleness, tranquility and hustle mix it up in the mist and the dust, in towns old and new.

从偏远的乡村走到城镇,从沙漠腹地到屯垦戍边的兵团。和中国其他地区一样,城乡发展存在着一些矛盾,生存夹缝中也充满着困惑。边疆经济模式转型复杂而缓慢,政策也需要更多变通和完善。年轻人会觉得新疆与外界难以融入;内地有的官场习气,在这里也容易蔓延;早婚的习俗和对外面世界的向往困扰着少数民族青年;环境资源与保护利用的矛盾也处处可见……不同文化的交融出现误解和怀疑时,人们怎样冲破篱笆,相互沟通?

From remote villages to towns, from desert heartland in the desert outward, conflict between rural and urban development is paramount. Indecision haunts people scrambling to make a living, just like in other areas in China. The shift here, however, in economic mode in Xinjiang is different because it is slower and complicated. Policies are yet to be adjusted and refined. Young people see Xinjiang fits in with the outside world. Bureaucracy, common enough in inland areas, is propagated effortlessly. That old custom of early marriage and yearning for the outside world puzzle the youngsters of ethnic minorities. The discord between the utilization and protection of environmental resources is obvious. How will people break through their misunderstanding and suspicion when cultures clash?

我的维吾尔族好朋友麦尔丹,初中毕业后因为车祸不能干重体力活,正好喀什一家保安公司招保安,他汉语好,就招上了,在离家乡300多公里喀什市一待就是好几年。一开始,喜欢留小胡子的麦尔丹因为体检时必须要剃掉,很不情愿,他也不喜欢保安服,觉得一点都不帅。因为这些他还一度想放弃这份工作,后来父亲电话告诉他:“儿子,没有了胡子,你还是你自己!”后来,他获得重庆老板的赏识,从保安干到老板专职司机,并在疏附县旅游局负责2012世界旅游小姐新疆赛区年度冠军总决赛、首届疏附县旅游形象大使选拔赛的协调工作。在疏附县民族乐曲村工作的时候,他还实现了自己的梦想,养了很多斗鸡和刀郎羊。现在,他在广东老板开发的国际家具城做销售工作。

Mardan, a good Uyghur friend of mine, suffer an injury in a traffic accident that made him unable to do heavy physical labor. But because he speaks Chinese well, he was recruited as a company security guard . Kashgar is more than 300 kilometers away from his hometown but he worked there for few years. Mardan liked wearing a beard, but he had to shave it for the physical exam. He was reluctant, and. beside that he disliked his uniform, thinking it unfashionable, not cool enough. He thought of quitting, but his father phoned to say, “you are still Mardan without beard.” Afterwards when highly regarded by his boss from Chongqing, and promoted to be the boss’ full-time driver, he was pleased. In addition, he worked for the ShufuCounty travel bureau and was responsible for the Xinjiang final of 2012 Miss Tourism World. He worked in the village of ethnic musical instruments in ShufuCounty, where raised many gamecocks and Dolans, which had long been his dream. Now he’s doing a sales job in an international furniture shopping center managed by a Guangdong boss.

尽管我的这些照片并不能反映整个新疆的全貌,但我会努力用它们去寻找一个真实的新疆和那些为美好生活而努力的新疆人。也许我并不能像人类学家、社会学家和政治家们那样,深入思考发展与传统、法治与自由、民族与宗教、科技与文化等一系列复杂而深奥的问题,但我相信,发展中的新疆,需要我们所有人在相互尊重的基础上,融入到丰富生动的生活之中,细致耐心地去寻找答案……

Though these photos are far from enough to give an overall picture of Xinjiang, they help me to discover the authentic Xinjiang and its hard-working people. I am not as erudite as scholarly anthropologists, sociologists and politicians who labor in the thin air of complex and abstract issues. Development and tradition, law and liberty, religion and nation, science and culture are important, yes. Still, I think to discover Xinjiang at this malleable stage is to let us partake in a transformation based on mutual respect, while seeking answers with patience.

Written/Photographed by ZHANG Xinmin

英文版载于《中国民族》海外版 2014.3
中文版载于《南风窗》2014.8 、《人民画报》2015.2

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